สำนักราชบัณฑิตยสภา

345 345 Prakong Nimmanahaeminda ªï ∑’Ë Ú˘ ©∫— ∫∑’Ë Ú ‡¡.¬.-¡‘ .¬.ÚıÙ˜ «“√ “√ √“™∫— ≥±‘ µ¬ ∂“π PrakongNimmanahaeminda Associate Fellow of theAcademy ofArts, The Royal Institute (Thailand) Myth and Ritual : A Study of the Songkran Festival* Abstract Songkran Festival is a celebration of Thai traditional new year of the Thai people, especiallyof thenorthernorLannaThai. It isa tradition sharedby theBuddhists inMyanmar, Laos,Dehong and XishuangpannaAutonomous Prefectures of the Yunnan province in the southernpartof thePeople’sRepublicofChina.TheoriginofSongkran iswidely told in the lands whereSongkran tradition isheartily celebrated.Differing inminutedetails,these legends are similar in themain contents. It ispossible that these legends and theSongkran festival itself have theMonprovenanceand in lateryearsarepassedonasculturalheritageof theBuddhists of Southeast Asia and Southern China. Songkran celebration is an occasion for showing gratitude to theelderlybenefactors,purificationofbody and soul and expressingwellwishing to one another.Water in Songkran festival represents coolness, cleanliness, freshness, and vitality.The overallmeaning tends tobe an expection for fertility and an expression of good will among people.Most of the countries in Southeast Asia now have set the date of the beginning of thenew year on the firstof January to conformwith international reckoning.This practicehasallowedculturalamnesia to set inonnewgenerations,youngpeopleof today,who tend to rememberSongkran festivalasa time for frolicandmerrymakingwith little thoughtor reflectionon theessence. Songkran is a festival associatedwith the arrivalof theNewYear inThailand,which is celebrated in themonthofApril.Even thoughThailandhasadopted the internationalpractice of celebrating theNewYear on January 1 st since 1939, the Songkran festival has remained an important occasion for celebration for the Thai people to this day. Beside Thailand, other countries in theSoutheastAsian region, suchasCambodia,Myanmar,andLaos,also celebrate Songkran. Songkran is also an important annual festivity celebrated among theTai groups in theDehongandXishuangpannaAutonomousPrefectures in theYunnanprovinceof thePeople’s RepublicofChina. Keywords : SongkranMyth,SongkranFestival *Paper presented in the ISFNR InterimConference on Islands andNarrativesOrganised by the InternationalSociety ofFolkNarrative Research.Visby,Sweden13-17August2003 √ “ π µÏ_345-350 346 346 Myth andRitual : A Study of the Songkran Festival Vol. 29 No. 2 Apr.-Jun. 2004 The Journalof theRoyal InstituteofThailand This article aims to study the relationship between themyths and rituals of Songkran festival and the changes in Songkran rituals in to- day’s society. Meaningsof theword “Songkran” “Songkran” derives from a Sanskritwordwhichmeans shift or movement. It refers to themovement of the sun from one position to another in the zodiac.According to itsmeaning in Sanskrit, a Songkran thus occurs everymonth.However, the period that Thai people refer to as Songkran happenswhen the sun moves fromPisces toAries signson thezodiac.Thecorrectname for this period should actually be Maha Songkran because it coincideswith a significantarrivalof theNewYear. But the Thais have referred to this periodsimplyas Songkran foravery long time. Songkran Festival is, therefore, a celebration of theNew Year in accordance to the solar calendar. The celebration covers a period of three days:April 13 th is regarded as the MahaSongkran, the day that the sunmoves into theAries sign on the zodiac or the last day of theoldyear.April14 th is called Wan Nao, theday in-between theold and thenewyear, andApril15 th is called Wan Thaloeng sok, the day of the NewYear itself. SongkranMyths There are different yet similar versions in the oral tradition that relates the origin of Songkran tradi- tion in Thailand.A highly detailed written version of the Songkran mythappearsonastone tablet in Wat PhraChettuphonWimonmangklaram in Bangkok. This stone tablet was written in the reign of King Rama IIIof the Chakri Dynasty.Athis royal behest, all kinds of information, for example,samplesofThaipoem, texts on herbal medicine and different mythswere recordedonstone tablets. This detailed Songkran myth was written on a total of seven stone tablets.Asummaryof themyth is as follows: Once upon a time, therewas a wealthyman whose residence was located incloseproximity toaheavy drinker.The richmanwas childless while thedrinkerhad two sons.One day, the drinker went to theman’s houseand insultedhim incoarseand vulgar language.The richmanasked theheavydrinkerwhyheacted in this manner.The latter replied that even though the richmanwas extremely wealthy hewas still inferior to him because hewas childless and all his wealth would dissipate upon his eventualdeath.Hearing this, the rich man felt humiliated so he began making sacrifices to the sun and the moonGods foraperiodof threeyears begging for a son in return.But his efforts were in vain. Then, on the MahaSongkran day inApril,hewent toaBanyan treeona riverbank,made food offerings to the tree god and asked forachild.The treegodasked Indra togrant the richmanhiswish. Indra sent Dharmabarn Devaputra to be conceived in thewomb of the richman’swife.After 10months a sonwasborn to them.Hewasnamed Dharmakumarn. The parents built a seven-storied mansion near the Banyan tree for him. There were a large flock of birds living in this tree. Dharmakumarn grew up to be very intelligent. He was able to understand the Traipet Text from a veryearlyage.At sevenyearsoldhe could already give instructions on how toperformmeriteous rituals.He was also able to understand the language of the birds.At that time men worshiped Thao Mahaprom. Onegodby thenameof Kabillaprom camedown toearth toposeaquestion to Dharmakumarn. The question was:“Where is thegloryofmen (sri) located in themorning, during the day and in the evening?”The agree- mentwas that the loserwould have their head severed. Dharmakumarn requested for a period of seven days to solve the problem while Kabillaprom returned toheaven.Six dayshadpassedand Dharmakumarn still did not know the answer so he went to contemplate it under a Palmyra tree.There, Dharmakumarn overheard the eagles saying to one another that tomorrow they would feast on his flesh because hewould notbeable tosolve theproblem.The femaleeagleaskedhermatewhether heknew the answer.Themale eagle gave her the correct answer that the sri was in a human being’s face in the morning; that was why people washed theirfaceswithwater.During the day the sri would be at the chest where humans put on perfume.And in the evening the sri would shift to the feet, that was why people washed their feet in the evening. Dharmakumarn learned the answer and gave it to Kabillaprom when he returned on the seventh day.Losing 347 347 Prakong Nimmanahaeminda ªï ∑’Ë Ú˘ ©∫— ∫∑’Ë Ú ‡¡.¬.-¡‘ .¬.ÚıÙ˜ «“√ “√ √“™∫— ≥±‘ µ¬ ∂“π thecontest, Kabillaprom summoned his seven daughters and told them that he would cut his head off for Dharmakumarn. However, if his head fell to earth, itwould create an inferno thatwould span theworld. If hisheadwas thrown into the air, the rainswouldhalt resulting inaserious drought.And ifhisheadwasdropped into the ocean, all seawater would dry up. To prevent these calamities Kabillaprom told his daughters to place his head on a pedestalled tray. After Kabillaprom was decapitated, the eldest daughter put it on a tray and took it on a ritual procession around the mythical Phra Sumeru Mountain accompanied by the attendant gods for a period of 60 minutes. Then Kabillaprom’s head waskept inastupa in Khanthathulee Cave at Krailart Mountain.After a total of 365 days, each of the seven daughterswould take turnsbringing his head out to make a ritual pro- cession around Phra Sumeru and returned it to Khanthathulee Caveat Krailart Mountain.Thishasbecome an annual ritual since then. Anumber of different versions of similar originmyths of Songkran festival is found in Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and the Dehong and Xishuangpanna Autonomous Prefectures inYunnan province of the People’s Republic of China. Variations of these versions are as follows: Songkran myths in Cambodia and Laos are similar to the Thai version with the key characters having the same names. The Burmese Songkran myth goes as follows:Agod by the name of Thagyarmin had an argument with another god by the name of Asiprom about the number of days therewere inaweek.Theyhadabet andagreed that the loserwouldhave his head severed. Thagyarmin won the bet and cut offAsiprom’s head with a lightning bolt. Thagyarmin held the headwith his hand so that it would not fall to the ground. However, Asiprom’s headwas very hot and only the gods could hold it. Thagyarmin called upon seven goddesses to take turns lookingafter Asiprom’s head for one year each. During Songkran the current keeper of the head would cleanse it with water before turning it over to the next goddess. The Songkran myth of theTai Lue people in the Xishuangpanna Autonomous Prefecture in the People’s Republic of China goes as follows: An ogre abducted 11 beautiful peasant girls to be his wives.All the wives loathed their husbandbutdidnotknowhow toget rid of him.Then, the ogre abducted the 12 th wife who was very intel- ligent. She pretended to look after him very well and questioned him on the secret of his power and the weapon thatwouldkillhim.Theogre trustedher somuch thathe revealed that he could only be killed by his ownhair.When theogrehadgone to sleep the 12 th wife pulled one strand of his hair and strangled himwith it and his head fell off.All thewives were overjoyed and decided to burn his head but the fire spread every- where.So theyburied it in theground but it smelled sobad that theyhad to throw it into water. But the water became boiling hot and overflowed. Itwas onlywhen the headwas held upbyahand that the firestopped.To prevent all these calamities, each of the12wiveshad to take turnsholding the ogre’s head for one year. Each time the headwas given to the next keeper itwouldbecleansedbywater. The Songkran myth of theTai people in the Dehong Autonomous Prefecture of the People’sRepublic of China is similar to the Tai Lue myth. The only difference is that in the Dehong myth the ogre had only 7 wives and the 7th wife was theonewho strangledhimwith his hair. It was explained that the reason for throwing water during the Songkran festival is to clean the bloodstains off the sevenwives and to expresspeople’sgratitude to their sacrifice to prevent the disasters thatwould befallmankind.Another version of the Dehong’s Songkran myth tookplaceat the timewhen the earth had been newly created.Nine gods flew from heaven to earth and could not fly back.Therewere alto- gether fivegodsand fourgoddesses. They formed four couples. The re- maining god tried to steal a goddess and was killed by the other four gods. It sohappened that if thegod’s head fell to the ground therewould bean inferno, therefore, thegodsand goddesses had to take turn holding the head and cleansing itwith cold water. Itwas recordedon the WatPra- chettuphon Wimolmangkaram’s stone tablet that this particular Songkran myth originated from a Mon myth. The author has inter- viewed ethnicMons in Bangkok 348 348 Myth andRitual : A Study of the Songkran Festival Vol. 29 No. 2 Apr.-Jun. 2004 The Journalof theRoyal InstituteofThailand and was told that they have two versionsof the Songkran myth.One version is the same as the one about Dharmabarn and Kabillaprom that appears on the stone tablet.Another version is different and goes as follows: During the lifetime of the Lord Buddha in his reincarnation as Kakusontho, a woman became pregnantbut couldnot findherself a husband.Thewomanwas ashamed and when she gave birth to a baby boyonApril13 th sheputhimundera Banyan tree andmade awish that a rich familywouldadopthim.Acattle herder of a richman found the baby andbroughthim tohisemployer.The richman raised the boy as his own son until he reached seven years of age.One day,while Kakusontho Buddhawasdeliveringa sermon the mothers took their children to listen tohim.Thewomanwhogaveupher child at birth saw them and remem- bered her own son. She cooked a meal of rice specially prepared and scented and decided to take her son to attend theBuddha’s sermon. She went back to the treewhere she left the baby and could not find it. She later learned that he was with the richman so shewent to his house. Upon seeing thewoman, theboy ran tohereven thoughhehadneverseen her before. The woman revealed herself as hismother and asked for the richman’spermission to take the boy for an audience with the Lord Buddha.TheBuddhanamed thisboy Songkran and called the woman’s specially prepared dish peung Songkran. He taught the boy to recite one mantra each morning. Later Songkran’s mother became a rich vendor and her son grew up to be a powerful man endowed with supernatural powers that even all the ogreswere in awe of him.Even the God Indra could not win a fightwith Songkran so he gave his daughter’s hand inmarriage to him. Songkran had eight children, one boy and seven girls.Many people feared him.Later Songkran decided that hewould usurp Indra’s power. Thisantagonized Indra somuch that he asked his daughter to seek the secretof Songkran’s power. Songkran revealed that his power derived from the fact thathehadoffered rice to the LordBuddha and recited the mantra that theLordBuddha taught him and that he would only be powerfulduring themorning. Indra’s daughter passed on this vital infor- mation to her father. Indra came to fight Songkran in the afternoon and cuthisheadoff.Since Songkran was verypowerful ifhisheadwas thrown into the ocean, thewaterwould dry up for12years. If itwas thrown into the air, there would be droughts for 12 years. Indra called upon Songkran’s children telling them to place his head on a tray and keep it in a cave under Yukhantorn Mountain. Each year Songkran’s children would pour scented water onhishead to show their respect.To this day,Mon people believe that children must pay respect to their parents by pouringwater over them andmust bring foodwhich consists of peungSongkran or scented rice to offer to themonks.This ricedelicacy is known to theThais as khao chae. Mon culture isquite influential in bothMyanmar andThailand be- cause in thepast theMonsbelonged toaBuddhiststatewithaveryhighly developed literary tradition. It is, therefore, possible that theThais in the central and northern regions as well as the Burmese had adopted Songkran myths and rituals from theMons and transmitted them to the Cambodians, Laotians and Tai groups in the People’s Republic of China. Songkran mythsand traditions The various versions of Song- kran myths mentioned above vary indetails tocertainextents.However, there are some correspondingmain themes identifiable among these myths.These common themes are: 1.One principal male cha- racter’s head is cut off. 2.The severed head caused danger and catastrophes of heat and droughtensue. Itcouldnotbe thrown into the air or fall onto the ground but had to be placed on a container or held up by hand. 3.The keepers of the head are normally female who took turns looking after the head for one year. The varying details are the namesof thepersonwhohadhishead cut off, the reasons for his head beingcutoff, the statusandnumbers of the femaleswho carried the tray containing the head. When we try to decipher the symbols that appear in thesemyths the following explanations are derived: 1.Theseveredhead isasymbol of the sun and drought because the 349 349 Prakong Nimmanahaeminda ªï ∑’Ë Ú˘ ©∫— ∫∑’Ë Ú ‡¡.¬.-¡‘ .¬.ÚıÙ˜ «“√ “√ √“™∫— ≥±‘ µ¬ ∂“π sun brings both heat and drought. Songkran festival is usually cele- brated at the timewhen theweather is the hottest of the year. 2.Thewaterbeingpouredover the severed head is a symbol of coolness, cleanliness and fertility. 3.The reason thatwomen are assigned the task of keeping the head from falling to the earth is because women are perceived as the ones who give birth, perform motherly function of raising and protecting the children.Women are, therefore, suitable for the roles of protector, preventing the earth from catastrophe. 4.The act of children pouring water over the father’s head reflects an important socialvalueofpietyor gratitude of the children to their parents in society. Songkran myth is created to explain the origins of the ritual pouring of water and piety value. Themeaningsof Songkran mythare represented by three symbols. The head represents heat and drought. Water represents fertility. In agricultural societies, droughts are threatening and water is extremely important topeople’ssurvival.Water in Songkran festival represents coolness, cleanliness, freshness, and vitality. The overallmeaning tends to be an expectation for fertility and an expression of good will among people. The act of children pouring water over the father’s head represents an act of piety toward parents and peoplewhom one owes gratitude to. Songkran festival is traditional toanagriculturalsociety.Among the Thais of the central region there is a tradition of a Songkran Festival announcement, which reflects the Thais’ beliefs in astrology. Nang Songkran (Miss Songkran), the daughters of Kabillaprom, is as- sociated with divination rite about the success of the annual crops and the welfare of the country. In the annual Songkran announcement, the nameof NangSongkran is specified together with details about her clothing and the type of animal that she rides or sleeps on.These details represent astrological prediction of the productivity or barrenness of agricultural products aswell as the tranquility or turmoil of the country eachyear. Songkran festivalplaces strong emphasison the importanceofpiety and goodwill. It is the time of the yearwhen children remember their deceased ancestors and pay respect to the living ones through the ritual pouring of water. The elders show their good will by giving blessings to the younger generation. Friends pourwater over and give blessings to one another. As a festival in Buddhist societies, Songkran is usually celebrated in conjunction with Buddhist activities ofmaking merit at the temple by performing a bathing rite for theBuddha images. This practice acts as a spiritual cleansing to prepare people for the comingNewYear.At the same time, Songkran isanopportunityforpeople to enjoy themselves afterharvesting time. In the old days, the activities were more enjoyable and not as aggressive as it has become now- adays. There are fourmain activities that the Thais practice during Songkran festival which continue from the past to present day. 1.The cleansing of impurity and evil through the act of cleaning houses, temples and public pro- perties.Insomeregionsritualbathing andhairwashingareperformed.The monksare invited toperformachant toward off evil and to give people blessings that ensure prosperity. 2.Going to the temple to pay respect to the triple gems (Phra Rattanatrai ) and tomakemerit for deceased ancestors. 3.Paying respect toandasking forgiveness from the elders or persons whom one owes gratitude to,suchas thegrandparents,parents, and teachers.These acts are accom- panied by an offering of flowers, clothes and scentedwater. In some regions, the children pour scented waterover theelders’handswhile in other regions, theeldersmerely touch the scented water with their hands and run them over their hair. 4.Entertainment. People ex- press their good will by giving blessingsandpouringwateroverone another. Changes Thailand has adopted the traditionofcelebrating theNewYear on January 1 st since 1939, the same period as other Southeast Asian countries. As time passes, the traditionofNewYearcelebrationon 350 350 Myth andRitual : A Study of the Songkran Festival Vol. 29 No. 2 Apr.-Jun. 2004 The Journalof theRoyal InstituteofThailand January 1 st has become increasingly more important.December 31 st and January1 st arenowofficialholidays. Shops enjoy a thriving business sellingNewYear gifts and cards at this time of the year. The original meaning of Songkran has increa- singlybeenoverlookedandforgotten. Because the new generation tends to express their good will to one another during the International NewYear, Songkran has now been associated more and more mainly with the fun and entertainment as- pects.This trend has been endorsed by the campaign topromote tourism by organizing such entertainment activities as the Nang Songkran processions and contests. The emphasis on merit making rituals, paying respects to the elders, and expressing lovingkindnesshavebeen diminished. Acts of aggression related to Songkran , such as violent water throwingandexcessivealcohol consumption which lead to fatal accidents,havenowbecome serious problems in many societies where Songkran festival is celebrated. In theauthor’sopinion, thereare a number of measures that should be taken to rectify the situation.For example, thereshouldbemoreactive public relations to educate people and tourists about the truemeaning of and the appropriate behavior during the Songkran festival. This information should be disseminated at amuch earlier period andmore frequent intervals thanwhat isbeing done at present, about one or two weeks before the festival. The true message andmeaning of Songkran Festival should also be properly instilled and transmitted to our sub- sequentgenerations. Bibliography PrabatSomdejPraChulachomklaoChaoYu Hua. Pra Raj Pitee Sipsong Deun . Bangkok : Krom Karn Sasna Press, 1967. Manee Payomyong. Prapenee Sipsong DeunKhongLannathai. Chiengmai : S.SapKarnpim, 1993. Songkran 2533. Office ofNationalCulture Committee, Ministry of Education. Bangkok: Amarintra Printing Group, 1990. Sathienkoses. Prapenee Nueng Nai Tesakarn. Bangkok: Society of the SocialSciences, 1963. Traditional New Year Festivals in Five Countries:AComparative Cultural Study. ThePublic andCulturalAffairs Division, Department of Information, Ministry of foreignAffairs andCenter for the Promotion ofArts andCulture. Chiengmai University. Chiengmai: MingmuangNawaratnaCo.Ltd.,1999. ∫∑§— ¥¬à Õ µ”π“π·≈–æ‘ ∏’ °√√¡ :»÷ °…“®“°ª√–‡æ≥’ ß°√“πµå ª√–§Õß π‘ ¡¡“π‡À¡‘ π∑å ¿“§’ ¡“™‘ ° ”π— °»‘ ≈ª°√√¡ √“™∫— ≥±‘ µ¬ ∂“π ß°√“πµå ‡ªì πª√–‡æ≥’ °“√¢÷È πªï „À¡à ¢Õߧπ‰∑¬∑’Ë ®— ¥¢÷È π „π‡¥◊ Õπ‡¡…“¬π ‡ªì πª√–‡æ≥’ ∑’Ë ¡’ ¡“·µà ¡— ¬‚∫√“≥ ·¡â «à “‰∑¬√— ∫ ª√–‡æ≥’ °“√¢÷È πªï „À¡à „π«— π∑’Ë Ò¡°√“§¡µ“¡·∫∫ “°≈¡“µ—È ß·µà æ.». 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